Historical Atlas of Canada Maps

Social | Military | Society | Population |
Boundaries | Native Canada | Exploration | Prehistory

 

Social

  1. Unemployment Relief Work Camps, 1932-1936

    This map details the different types of works projects that were undertaken across Canada during the Great Depression to try and get men working. It works well with pages 292-295 of Destinies, Chapter Twelve, “Canada in the Great Depression.” These projects were all undertaken by the Department of National Defence, with the exception of the National Parks projects, which were administered by the Department of the Interior.

  2. Trek in Search of Work, 1928-1939

    This map co-ordinates well with pages 289-292 of Destinies. These pages are in Chapter Twelve, “Canada in the Great Depression.” The map tracks the journeys of Nelson Thibault, Bill Johnstone, and Phyllis and Ali Knight as they searched for work during the lean times of the Depression. More general patterns of human movement are also visible on the map. Though exact figures are not available, it is possible to see trends for where people either embarked or disembarked on their journeys: major urban centres like Winnipeg, Toronto and Montreal were the destinations of choice for many.

  3. Relief Recipients by Province, 1930-1940

    This map can be used in reference to pages 298-300 of Destinies. These pages are in Chapter Twelve, “Canada and the Great Depression.” This map indicates the numbers of people who were receiving direct and indirect aid during the Depression. It also shows this number as a percentage of the population of each province. This map can be useful to show that different areas of the country were hit hardest by the Depression at different times.

  4. Relief Recipients by selected Urban Areas, 1935

    Covering a single year, this graph co-ordinates well with pages 298-300 of Destinies. These pages are in Chapter Twelve, “Canada and the Great Depression.” The plate can be used to show that certain cities were struck much harder by the Depression than the surrounding countryside. At the same time, in some provinces the opposite was the case in 1935, and it was in fact the farmers who needed and received more relief than their urban counterparts.

  5. Acadian Deportation Experience, 1755-1785

    This plate can be used in conjunction with pages 120-125 of Origins, Chapter Six, “The Acadians.” It shows where the Acadians were deported from, where they were deported to, and the routes that were used by many to return to the Maritimes years later. Of particular value is the inclusion of the numbers of Acadians who were deported to each location on the map, which makes it possible for students to judge the scale of the deportation.

  6. Acadian Population Distribution: 1750, 1803

    This plate can be used in conjunction with pages 117-120, and 124-125 of Origins, Chapter Six, “The Acadians.” This map is useful because it gives a sense of how spread out the Acadian population was in 1750, and how that changed because of the deportation. It also shows that there were urban centres that were largely Acadian in 1750. There is also a definite shift in population distribution from Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island to New Brunswick that is evident in these maps.

Military

  1. Logistics of the War, 1812-1814

    This map can work well in conjunction with pages 229-233 of Origins, Chapter Eleven, “Britain’s First Inland Colony: Upper Canada, 1791-1815.” It shows how information and people moved throughout North America to fight this war. British, American and Aboriginal settlements and sites of battle are all located on the map. Of particular interest might be the large amount of space that was claimed by either side, though it had no settlement by Europeans.

  2. Strategic Thrusts By Year, 1812-1814

    This map co-ordinates well with pages 229-233 of Origins, Chapter Eleven, “Britain’s First Inland Colony: Upper Canada, 1791-1815.” It shows the location and types of encounters between the British and the Americans during the years of the War of 1812. It also marks out the larger strategic manoeuvres undertaken by each side, and how a virtual stalemate was the end result of the fighting in 1814.

  3. The British Naval Blockade, 1811-1815

    This plate works well in conjunction with page 229 of Origins, from Chapter Eleven, “Britain’s First Inland Colony: Upper Canada, 1791-1815.” It has two graphs and a drawing of the blockade from the time period. The graph on the left shows the number of ships that were blockaded, and this number increased greatly in the later years of the conflict. The graph on the right looks at the increasing commercial impact of the naval blockade in terms of the millions of dollars lost by American merchants.

  4. Military Transport, 1812-1814

    This table lists the distances that could have been travelled, under ideal conditions, by the various methods that were available during the War of 1812. Both kilometres and miles are listed. This table can be used to further explain many of the military details that are listed on pages 231-232 of Origins, Chapter Eleven, “Britain’s First Inland Colony: Upper Canada, 1791-1815.”

  5. Canadian Military Hospitals and Cemeteries in Europe, 1914-1919

    This map looks at two related facts of the First World War: there were large numbers of Canadian casualties, and there were also a great number of Canadian military hospitals that saved lives and treated the wounded. This plate works well with pages 235-236 of Destinies, Chapter Ten, “Canada in the Great War.”

  6. Casualties and Medical Facilities in Canada, 1914-1919

    This plate locates both the numbers of Canadians who served and died per province, as well as where most of them received care if they returned back to Canada. Pages 236-237, and 247-248 of Destinies, Chapter Ten, “Canada and the Great War” relate closely to this plate. It can be used as a starting point to talk about veterans’ rights, the Spanish Flu epidemic, and conscription during the First World War and its immediate aftermath.

  7. Enlistment and Military Installations in Canada, 1914 1919

    This map works well with the discussion of the conscription crisis on page 240-241 of Destinies, Chapter Ten, “Canada in the Great War.” Pages 245-246 of that chapter discuss the Community of Soldiers, which could also be used in reference to this map. It lists the numbers of people who served overseas, those who served in Canada as part of the Armed Forces, and also the amount of untapped manpower per province. It also shows where the Armed Forces trained and prepared in Canada, and how far many people had to travel to do this.

  8. The Royal Newfoundland Regiment in St. John’s, 1914-1919

    This plate gives a focused look at the casualties and enlistment of a single community, St. John’s Newfoundland. It can be co-ordinated with pages 235-237 of Destinies, Chapter Ten, “Canada in the Great War.” The map shows the high number of casualties that many communities suffered.

  9. Enlistment and Casualties, 1914-1919

    A series of graphs are listed on this page. They all co-ordinate well with the table of casualties on page 236 of Destinies, Chapter Ten, “Canada in the Great War.” The total number of people who joined the Canadian Expeditionary Force, as well as the total number who served overseas can be found on this plate. The casualty rates that were incurred both overseas and in Canada are also available.

  10. Canadian Patriotic Fund, 1914-1919

    This plate lists the voluntary contributions of Canadians that helped provide assistance to the wives and dependents of soldiers. Page 235 of Destinies Chapter Ten, “Canada in the Great War,” notes both the Canadian Patriotic Fund, as well as the other activities of women during the war years. These donations were undertaken in the midst of rationing, and controls on the wages of most workers, which makes them even more impressive.

  11. Victory Loan Campaigns 1917-1918

    This graph shows a provincial breakdown of the loans that were offered by Canadians to help support the increasingly costly First World War. The Federal Government found it difficult to finance the soldiers and their equipment as the war went on, and so they relied more on new forms of revenue. The plate can be used in co-ordination with page 234 of Destinies Chapter Ten, “Canada in the Great War.” It can also be used as part of a discussion of the tensions that emerged from the Anglo perception of French Canadians not “doing their part” to help the war effort that can be found on pages 238-239 of Destinies.

Society

  1. Art and Architecture, 19th Century; Images of Canada, 1810-1894

    This map of Canada tracks the movement of several different artists during the nineteenth century. It can be used to show the quest for new visions of the Canadian landscape, and the need for many artists to go beyond the settled areas of Canada. Various painting and photographs by these artists are available on the Atlas website as well. Pages 196-199 of Destinies, Chapter Nine, “Culture: 1867-1914,” can also be used in conjunction with this slide.

  2. Selected Painters and Photographers

    This table provides a list of several artists, the media they worked in, when they were in Canada, and their countries of origin. This plate can also be used with pages 196-199 of Destinies, Chapter Nine, “Culture: 1867-1914.”

  3. Slideshow

    This slideshow is a useful introduction to the various types of homes that Canadians lived in during the nineteenth century. The slides include sample homes from Ontario, Quebec, the Maritimes, Newfoundland, and the North and West. Regional variations in living spaces can be tied to economic prosperity, available property, and the value placed on home ownership by different ethnic groups. Pages 153-154 of Destinies in Chapter 7, “The Impact of Urban and Industrial Growth,” describe life in the Industrial City, which can be related to this slideshow.

The Printed Word, 1752-1900

  1. Regional Spread of Newspapers, 1752-1900

    This plate examines how the first newspapers appeared in several Canadian communities. Worth noting are the east-west or south-north routes that brought the newspaper to the various communities. The map also provides the date for when the first newspaper appeared in each of the communities listed. The plate does not have a corresponding section in either Origins or Destinies that looks at the eighteenth century press. Page 206 in Destinies, Chapter Nine, “Culture: 1867-1914,” does look at mass newspapers in the late nineteenth century.

  2. Numbers of Newspapers Published, 1855-1891

    This graph details the often dramatic rise in the number of newspapers being published in the nineteenth century. It contains the number of newspapers being published for each province. Worth noting is the large disparity between the numbers of weekly papers published, and the much smaller number of dailies. This graph can be used with Destinies, Chapter Nine, “Culture: 1867-1914,” page 206.

  3. Major Libraries, 1891

    This graph looks at both the number of libraries in each province as well as the number of volumes per library. The graph can also be used as a reflection of where most of Canada’s population was located in the late nineteenth century. Pages 199-202 of Destinies Chapter Nine, “Culture: 1867-1914,” look at Canadian Literature during this time period, which can be a useful link to the information in these graphs.

  4. Montreal Collective Libraries

    This graph looks more closely at the libraries of Montreal. It also charts the time period when most of the libraries were formed. Comparisons can also be made between French and English library founding during this period. This graph can be used in conjunction with pages 199-202 of Destinies Chapter Nine, “Culture: 1867-1914.”

  5. Public Libraries, 1779-1891

    This map looks at the location of public libraries in Canada during the nineteenth century. They are sparsely located throughout each province, which can be used as part of a discussion on the state sponsorship of culture in Canada. The map also looks at the locations of Mechanics Institutes, which closely resemble the locations of the public libraries. Pages 199-202 of Destinies, Chapter Nine, “Culture: 1867-1914,” can be used to provide more details on the types of Canadian literature that might have filled these public libraries.

  6. Newspapers 1891

    This map charts the location of newspapers across Canada in 1891. It also provides rough circulation numbers for the papers, as well as their political affiliation. Finally, it can easily be seen that the locations of newspapers was closely tied to areas of settlement in Canada. Page 206 of Destinies, Chapter Nine, “Culture: 1867-1914,” is a useful point of reference with this map. Pages 137-142 from Destinies, Chapter Six, “Boomtime: Industrialization at the Turn of the Century,” also contains relevant information on urbanization throughout the country.

  7. Newspapers by County, 1891

    This plate is a different view of the information on newspapers that was listed in the previous map of 1891. It breaks down readership by county, and shows where most of the Canadian population was located at the time. The readership is also broken down into different political factions, which is a reminder that most newspapers were openly partisan at the time. Page 206 of Destinies, Chapter Nine, “Culture: 1867-1914,” relates well to this plate.

The Quest for Universal Schooling

  1. Students in School: 1851, 1881

    This plate looks at the census data for two different years in Canada, and charts the numbers of students attending school. When the different years are shown, the large increase in attendance in most counties is visible, though exact percentages are not available. Page 176 of Destinies, Chapter Eight, “An Era of Social Reform: 1890-1914,” tracks some of the reform ideas that led to a greater emphasis on schooling for children in the decades to come.

  2. Schools with Blackboards in Canada West: 1856, 1861, 1866

    This plate examines one tangible way that the quality of education was measured in the nineteenth century in Canada West. Taken for granted in today’s classroom, the blackboard is one way of judging whether the schools that children were attending had access to educational resources that would allow their students to learn effectively. This map relates well with pages 275-276 of Origins, Chapter Thirteen, “Upper Canada, 1815-1840: An Evolving Identity.”

  3. Female Teachers in the Maritimes, 1851, 1871, 1891

    This map details the coming prevalence of female teachers in the nineteenth century in Canada. The earlier maps (1851 and 1871) show fairly low percentages of female teachers in the Maritimes, whereas the later map shows an overwhelming tendency for teachers to be female. Page 176 of Destinies, Chapter Eight, “An Era of Social Reform: 1890-1914,” relates to the attitudes surrounding education at the time, while page 371-372 of Origins, Chapter Sixteen, “The Maritime Colonies, 1815-1864,” gives a more specific look at the regional factors that may have caused this shift in educators.

  4. School Registrations

    This graph shows the percentage of the population in each province that was registered in school from 1851-1891. This graph and its low numbers can be used in conjunction with page 176 of Destinies, Chapter Eight, “An Era of Social Reform: 1890-1914.” Origins, Page 371 in Chapter Sixteen, “The Maritime Colonies,” discusses Maritime education patterns, and pages 318-319 from Chapter Fourteen, “The Union of the Canadas,” look at similar developments in the Canadas.

Religious Adherence, 1891-1961

  1. Religious Adherence , 1921

    This map breaks down the different religious denominations that people identified as in Canada in 1921. The map can display which religion was the first, second, and third most popular in a given region. Pages 171-176 of Destinies, Chapter Eight, “An Era of Social Reform: 1890-1914,” describes the more active role of both the Protestant and Catholic Churches in Canada in the early years of the twentieth century, which can be related to the popularity of certain denominations in 1921. Page 271 of Destinies, Chapter Eleven, “Canada, 1919-1929: A Decade of Adjustment” also looks at religion and its challenges in the 1920s.

  2. Religious Diversity in Saskatchewan, 1921

    This map takes a closer look at the wide variety of religions that people self-identified as in 1921 in Saskatchewan. It is possible to see the first, second, and third most common denomination in each county. Page 271 of Destinies, Chapter Eleven, “Canada, 1919-1929: A Decade of Adjustment,” looks at the end of the reform movement and some of the reasons why Churches had to adjust to new social realities in the 1920’s.

  3. Presbyterian Vote on Church Union, 1924-1925

    Detailing the vote for Church Union that took place in 1924-1925, this plate can be used to look at regional differences in religious ideas. There were frequently regional differences in the level of support for Church Union between the Ontario, Quebec and Western congregations of each denomination. The challenges that many Churches faced are examined on pages 271-272 of Destinies, Chapter Eleven, “Canada, 1919-1929: A Decade of Adjustment.”

  4. Religious Adherence 1891-1961

    This map examines how the Canadian population self-identified according to religious affiliation in 1921. Each province is listed, as well as smaller breakdowns for the populations of Montreal and Toronto. Page 271-272 of Destinies, Chapter Eleven, “Canada, 1919-1929: A Decade of Adjustment” is the closest section that relates to religion during this time period.

  5. Religious Diversity in Canada

    This graph contains four pie charts listing how Canadians self-identified by religion in 1891, 1921, 1931, and 1961. Comparisons and contrasts are easy from one time period to another. Pages 271-272 of Chapter Eleven, “Canada, 1919-1929: A Decade of Adjustment,” pages 304-306 of Chapter Twelve, “Canada in the Great Depression,” and page 387 in Chapter Fifteen, “Protest and Reform: The 1960s” are all relevant for the information on this graph.

  6. Road to Church Union

    The site contains two charts, one detailed and one abridged, looking at how the United Church of Canada came into existence. A variety of dates, denominations and votes had to take place before the whole process was accomplished in 1925. Pages 271-272 of Destinies, Chapter Eleven, “Canada, 1919-1929: A Decade of Adjustment,” is relevant corresponding material.

Population

Eastern Canada Circa 1800

  1. Population and Economy Circa 1800

    This plate shows the population of British North America around 1800. The settled areas of the United States are also visible as a point of comparison. Fur trade routes and major locations for fishing are also visible on this map. Pages 183-185 from Chapter Nine, “Quebec Society in the Late Eighteenth Century,” in Destinies give related information about the population of Lower Canada in 1800. Pages 197-198 in Destinies, Chapter Ten, “Maritime Society, 1760-1815,” are relevant as well. Pages 227-228 of Chapter Eleven, “Britain’s First Inland Colony: Upper Canada 1791-1815,” can be used as well to add to the information about Upper Canada.

  2. Population and Language in Eastern Canada Circa 1800

    This plate shows the sharp language divide by region in British North America in 1800. It also shows where most of the population in the colonies was located. Pages 183-185 from Chapter Nine, “Quebec Society in the Late Eighteenth Century,” in Destinies, give related information about the population of Lower Canada in 1800. Pages 197-198 in Destinies, Chapter Ten, “Maritime Society, 1760-1815,” are relevant as well. Pages 227-228 of Chapter Eleven, “Britain’s First Inland Colony: Upper Canada 1791-1815,” can be used as well to add to the information about Upper Canada.

The Canadian Population: 1825, 1851, 1871, 1891

  1. Population Distribution Circa 1825

    This map shows a rough distribution of people in British North America around 1825, based upon census data. Urban areas are also noted on the map, located mainly in Lower Canada and the Maritimes. Pages 241, 243-245 from Chapter Twelve, “Rebellion and Change on the St. Lawrence,” in Origins help to explain the population distribution of Lower Canada at this time. Pages 269-270 from Chapter Thirteen, “Upper Canada, 1815-1840: An Evolving Identity” in Origins, relate similar information for Upper Canada.

  2. Population Distribution, circa 1851

    This map is similar to the plate describing the population circa 1825. Based on census data, it shows the massive increase in population in Upper and Lower Canada in the middle decades of the nineteenth century. Pages 310-315 in Chapter Fourteen, “The Union of the Canadas” in Origins, present information on immigration and urbanization that relate well to this plate.

  3. Population Distribution, circa 1871

    This plate is a further progression of the previous two plates. It shows the continuing rise in the population of Canada, this time including the colony in British Columbia as well. Pages 16-19 from Chapter One, “Confederation,” in Destinies, is useful for adding details to this plate.

  4. Population Distribution, circa 1891

    This plate is the final in the series detailing the growth and distribution of the population in Canada in the nineteenth century based upon census data. It usefully shows the increasing size of urban centres like Winnipeg and Vancouver in the later years of the century. Pages 131, 137, and 140 in Chapter Six, “Boomtime: Industrialization at the Turn of the Century,” of Destinies, all relate information that is relevant to this plate.

  5. Growth of Provinces

    This graph shows the rates of population increase, broken down province by province, from 1851-1891. Pages 16-19 from Chapter One, “Confederation,” in Destinies, are useful for adding details to this plate. As well, pages 131, 137, and 140 in Chapter Six, “Boomtime: Industrialization at the Turn of the Century,” of Destinies, all relate information that is relevant to this plate.

  6. Growth of Cities

    This graph shows the rapid increase in the size of Canada’s urban population from 1851-1891. It is worth noting that the fastest growing cities during this time period are in Ontario, though Montreal remained the largest city in Canada. Pages 131, 137, and 140 in Chapter Six, “Boomtime: Industrialization at the Turn of the Century,” of Destinies, all relate information that is relevant to this plate.

  7. Urban Populations

    This graph is a visual representation of the increasingly urban character of Canada throughout the nineteenth century. It also shows that in 1891 Canadians were more likely to live in large urban centres with populations of more than 100,000 people, as opposed to smaller urban areas. Pages 131, 137, and 140 in Chapter Six, “Boomtime: Industrialization at the Turn of the Century” of Destinies, all relate information that is relevant to this plate.

  8. Urban Centres

    This graph breaks down the number of urban centres in Canada from 1851-1891. It is a useful comparison with the previous graph. Pages 131, 137, and 140 in Chapter Six, “Boomtime: Industrialization at the Turn of the Century” of Destinies all relate information that is relevant to this plate.

  9. Canada Pyramids 1871, 1891

    This graph presents a population breakdown by age group for the years 1871-1891. It also shows a gendered breakdown by age group for the population as a whole. Pages 159-160 from Chapter Seven, “The Impact of Urban and Industrial Growth” in Destinies contain a discussion of family planning, birth and death rates, and assistance that was available that relates to this graph.

The Exodus: Migrations, 1860-1900

  1. Migration 1871-1891

    This plate gives an indication of the increasingly mobile population of Canada in the late nineteenth century. Numbers indicating where immigrants were arriving, as well as where people were leaving are available. Page 72 of Destinies, Chapter Three, “A “National Policy?”” contains relevant information on who was immigrating to Canada at this time.

  2. Canadian-born in the US, 1880

    This plate shows where most out-migration from Canada was going in the United States. Specific communities, mostly located in the north-east, were the preferred location for economic and cultural reasons. Page 131 of Destinies, Chapter Six, “Boomtime: Industrialization at the Turn of the Century,” contains a chart with statistics about Canada’s population from 1861-1921 that can be related to this plate.

  3. Canadian Migration Estimates

    This graph gives comparative numbers of both immigration and emigration in Canada from the 1850s to the first decade of the 1900s. Rough numbers are given since an exact count of who came and left was not possible in the nineteenth century. What this graph shows is that more people left Canada than arrived in the later decades of the nineteenth century. While there is no direct discussion of out-migration in either Origins or Destinies, pages 109-111 of Chapter Five, “Imperialism, Continentalism, and Nationalism,” in Destinies offer a look at continentalism, which was one of the push forces that led many Canadians south of the border.

Migration, 1891-1930

  1. Immigration to Canada 1896-1914

    This plate examines the immigration boom of these years. Where people went and in what numbers are both visible, as is their country of origin. Pages 70-76 of Destinies, Chapter Three, “A “National Policy?”” offer a good discussion of these events and what precipitated them.

  2. Immigration to the Prairies, 1896-1914

    This map examines the massive rise in immigrants going to western Canada from 1896-1914. Where these immigrants came from is visible on the map, as is an approximation of the numbers who arrived. Pages 70-75 of Destinies, Chapter Three, “A “National Policy?”” examines the federal government’s efforts to encourage western immigration and details which groups made up the majority of those arriving.

  3. Move to the West 1891- 1914

    This plate details the internal migration of Canadians from 1896-1914. The building of the Canada-Pacific Railway promoted the spread of people across the continent. Pages 66-69 of Destinies, Chapter Three, “A “National Policy?”” look at the reasons behind this policy, as well as how it was implemented by both the Liberal and Conservative governments of the late nineteenth century.

  4. Ontario Migration to the Prairies, 1901-1911

    This plate examines where Ontarians migrated to in Western Canada from 1901-1911. Pages 67-69 of Destinies, Chapter Three, “A “National Policy?”” look at how and why migration west was encouraged. Page 151 of Destinies, Chapter Seven, “The Impact of Urban and Industrial Growth,” looks at life for farmers around the turn of the century, which can help to explain why so many people went west.

  5. Canadians Living in the United States, 1930

    This map looks at where Canadians were living in the United States in 1930. While more Canadian migrants can be found living out west than in previous years, the majority are still found in the north-east. Pages 289-291 of Destinies, Chapter Twelve, “Canada in the Great Depression,” tells the story of the hardships that people faced at this time, and also why they may have chosen to leave Canada.

  6. Asian Immigration, 1891-1931

    This graph shows the numbers of Asians who arrived in Canada from 1891-1931. In a time where millions were being courted to come from Europe, Asian immigration remained restricted. Pages 75-78 in Destinies, Chapter Three, “A “National Policy?”” looks at why such restrictions were put in place, where the Asians who did come to Canada lived, and Nativist responses to their arrival.

  7. Immigrants to Canada, 1891-1961

    This graph shows larger trends in Canadian immigration, spanning several decades. Times of high immigration can be compared to those times when new immigration was virtually impossible. Pages 70-75 of Destinies, Chapter Three, “A “National Policy?”” can be used to help explain why there was a spike around the turn of the twentieth century, while pages 483-488 of Destinies, Chapter Eighteen, “Immigration and Multiculturalism,” discuss the post-World War Two increase in immigration.

  8. Distribution of Immigrant Population, 1921

    This series of graphs breaks down whether new immigrants lived in urban or rural areas upon their arrival. There seems to be a distinction between those who came to Eastern and Western Canada on this issue. Pages 70-75 of Destinies, Chapter Three, “A “National Policy?”” look at who was going out to Western Canada at this time. Page 262 of Destinies, Chapter Eleven, “Canada, 1919-1929: A Decade of Adjustment,” has a cartoon that highlights some of the attitudes in the west about Eastern Canada in the 1920s.

  9. Canadians Moving to the United States, 1890-1914

    This graph shows a pie chart of where Canadians were immigrating to the United States around the turn of the century. As in other graphs, it is worth noting the prevalence of Canadian immigration in the north-east. Nothing in either textbook directly relates to Canadian out-migration during this time period.


Population Composition 1891-1961

  1. Ethnic Origin, 1901

    This plate looks at the ethnic breakdown of Canada’s population by province in 1901. It would be useful for any discussions of immigration and nativist resentment towards ethnic groups. Pages 70-78 of Destinies, Chapter Three, “A “National Policy?”” examine these issues.

  2. Ethnic Origin, 1931

    This plate is a useful comparison to the breakdown of the population from 1901. Certain provinces saw large changes in the ethnic composition of their populations, while other areas remained fairly consistent. Pages 289-290 of Destinies, Chapter Twelve, “Canada in the Great Depression,” contain information about the country at this point in time, and why the population would have been located in the areas it was.

  3. Ethnic Origin, 1961

    This plate is a further continuation of the previous two, and shows an ethnic breakdown of Canada’s population. It would be useful to use this plate in conjunction with the previous two to chart changes and patterns of stability in different areas of the country through the early decades of the twentieth century. Pages 483-490 of Destinies, Chapter Eighteen, “Immigration and Multiculturalism,” are a useful aid when discussing the changes in ethnic composition of Canada in the 1960s.

  4. The Bilingual Belt, 1961

    This plate takes a look at those Canadians in Central Canada who were identified as being bilingual on the census from 1961. Whether English or French was the mother-tongue of these people is also listed. The only mention of Canada’s bilingual policy shift in the 1960s is on page 405 of Destinies, Chapter Fifteen, “Protest and Reform: The 1960s.”

  5. Major Ethnic Groups 1901-1961

    This graph looks at three points in Canada’s past to see which ethnic groups were most prevalent based upon census self-identification. While some groups remained fairly consistent, the British character of Canada can been seen to be in decline. This graph can be related to pages 483-490 of Destinies, Chapter Eighteen, “Immigration and Multiculturalism.”

  6. Population Growth 1871-1961

    This graph separates Canada’s population into urban and rural groups and charts the gross number of both from 1871-1961. What can be seen in this graph is a steady number of rural inhabitants, and a rapid rise in urban dwellers, especially in the decades immediately following the Second World War. This can be related to page 137 in Destinies, Chapter Six, “Boomtime: Industrialization at the Turn of the Century.” For a discussion of urbanization after the Second World War, pages 355-356 in Chapter Fourteen, “Toward a More Affluent Society: 1945-1960,” are useful.

  7. Population Profiles 1901, 1931, 1961

    This plate features population pyramids for the years 1901, 1931 and 1961. It charts the population of Canada by age group as well as gender for each year. This plate can be useful in discussing the post-war baby boom that occurred after 1945. Page 374 of Destinies, Chapter Fourteen, “Toward a More Affluent Society: 1945-1960,” provides more information on the baby boom.

  8. Urban and Rural Population: 1901, 1931, 1961

    This graph charts the demographic shift from rural to urban and metropolitan living in Canada throughout the twentieth century. This can be related to page 137 in Destinies, Chapter Six, “Boomtime: Industrialization at the Turn of the Century.” For a discussion of urbanization after the Second World War, pages 355-356 in Chapter Fourteen, “Toward a More Affluent Society: 1945-1960,” are useful.

Summary of Population Growth

  1. Population Growth 1851-1961

    This plate makes it possible to track the changes in the Canadian population from 1851 to 1961. The growth of certain areas of the country can be seen, as can the effects of immigration. Pages 70-75 of Destinies, Chapter Three, “A “National Policy?”” examine western immigration and the groups who made up the majority of those arriving. Pages 483-490 of Destinies, Chapter Eighteen, “Immigration and Multiculturalism,” mention the immigration policies of Canada after the Second World War, which had a direct impact on how many immigrants were admitted, as well as where they settled.

  2. Population Density 1851-1961

    This plate allows users to track the population density of different areas of Canada from 1851-1961. It can be useful when discussing immigration, migration patterns, and urbanization. Pages 70-75 of Destinies, Chapter Three, “A “National Policy?”” examine western immigration and the groups who made up the majority of those arriving. Pages 483-490 of Destinies, Chapter Eighteen, “Immigration and Multiculturalism,” mention the immigration policies of Canada after the Second World War, which had a direct impact on how many immigrants were admitted, as well as where they settled. Pages 131, 137, and 140 in Chapter Six, “Boomtime: Industrialization at the Turn of the Century,” of Destinies contain discussions of urbanization as well.

  3. Population Distribution, 1851-1961

    This plate presents another way to visually represent the changes in the Canadian population from 1851-1961. In this case, the spread and location of Canadians throughout this time period can be seen. It is a useful addition to the plates showing population growth and population density during the same time period. Pages 70-75 of Destinies, Chapter Three, “A “National Policy?”” examine western immigration and the groups who made up the majority of those arriving. Pages 483-490 of Destinies, Chapter Eighteen, “Immigration and Multiculturalism,” mention the immigration policies of Canada after the Second World War, which had a direct impact on how many immigrants were admitted, as well as where they settled.

Boundaries

Territorial Evolution, 1670- 2001

  1. Boundary Changes, 1670-2001

    This plate contains a series of maps that mark the boundary changes in North America from 1670- 2001. There is no consistent division of time between the maps, but this is due to events which caused the boundaries of the different colonies and countries to change. This can be a useful guide to show when treaties were made between the British, French, the Americans, Aboriginal peoples, and the Spanish. This plate contains maps that can apply to almost any of the different sections of either Origins or Destinies.

  2. Proposals for the Prairie Provinces, 1905

    This plate shows a series of alternate ways that the Prairie Provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta could have been divided. Page 100-101 of Destinies, Chapter Four, “The Fragile Union: The Resurgence of Regionalism,” discusses some of the issues that surrounded the entry of Saskatchewan and Alberta into the Dominion in 1905.

  3. Newfoundland Joins Confederation, 1949

    This plate shows the results from the two referenda that were held in Newfoundland in 1948 on the future governing of the colony. The results differed greatly in the second referendum, though the decision to join Confederation was far from unanimous. Pages 362-363 of Destinies, Chapter Fourteen, “Toward a More Affluent Society: 1945-1960,” have a discussion of Newfoundland joining Confederation.

  4. Regional Share of Canadian Territory by Province: 1891, 1949

    This graph provides a comparative look at the size of the territory of each province in Canada. In both cases, it is the Northwest Territories that have the largest area. Pages 437-443 of Destinies, Chapter Sixteen, “Aboriginal Canada: World War Two to the Present,” discuss many of the issues that have arisen over the North and the people who live there.

  5. Final Results of the Newfoundland Referendum, 1948

    This graph gives the total numbers of people both for and against Confederation during the 1948 Newfoundland referenda. The results in both cases were close between those who wanted responsible government, and those who sought to join Canada. Pages 362-363 of Destinies, Chapter Fourteen, “Toward a More Affluent Society: 1945-1960,” have a discussion of Newfoundland joining Confederation.

  6. Territorial Timeline, 1670-2001

    This timeline makes it possible to track the changes in the boundaries of Canada from 1670-2001. Many of the key dates and the events that caused these changes are listed on the screen depending upon which set of dates is selected. This slideshow contains information that can be used with almost any section of Origins or Destinies as a point of reference.

Native Canada

Native Population and Subsistence, 17th Century

  1. Linguistic Families, 17th Century

    This plate shows the rough geographical areas for the different linguistic families of Aboriginal Peoples in the seventeenth century. Because this map does not represent a single date from the century, all of Origins, Chapter Four “The Iroquois, The Hurons and the French,” contains corresponding information.

  2. Eastern Native Population, Early 17th Century

    This map gives the rough geographic areas where different Aboriginal bands lived in the early seventeenth century. It also divides them by linguistic family. Pages 65-70 of Origins, Chapter Four, “The Iroquois, The Hurons and the French,” describe this time period.

  3. Native Subsistence at European Contact, Ethnohistoric Data

    This plate describes the living patterns of the various Aboriginal groups in North America at the time of first contact with Europeans. Fishing, hunting, agriculture, and gathering are the four categories that these groups are divided into. The map also lists what was grown, what was hunted, fished, and what was gathered by peoples across the continent for subsistence. Pages 8-17 of Origins, Chapter One, “The First Peoples,” examine the lifestyles of various Aboriginal groups around the time of first contact with Europeans.

  4. Native Subsistence, 1000CE to European Contact, Archeological Data

    Using archeological data, this plate divides up North America by the different types of food that were available to Aboriginal peoples. Various sites of archeological exploration are also listed on the map, and provide the rough boundaries for the various regions. Pages 6-17 of Chapter One, “The First Peoples,” contain a discussion of life for many Aboriginal peoples during this time period.

Native Canada Circa 1820

  1. Native Population, Economies and Movement, Circa 1820

    This plate shows the location and size of many Aboriginal peoples based on linguistic family. It also lists movement patterns for the different groups, and the locations of Europeans at the same time. Pages 339-342 of Origins, Chapter Fifteen, “The Union of the Canadas: Political Developments, 1840-1864,” details how Europeans interacted with Aboriginal populations around the time of this plate. Page 368 in Chapter Sixteen, “The Maritime Colonies, 1815-1864,” examines Aboriginal treatment in the eastern part of the colonies. Pages 383-386 examine the struggles of the Beothuks in Newfoundland during this time as well. Pages 398-400 of Chapter Eighteen, “The Northwest to the 1860s,” examines similar struggles and challenges that Aboriginal people’s faced further west. Pages 425-426 of Chapter Nineteen, “The Pacific Coast to the 1860s,” also contain relevant information.

Native Reserves in Canada to 1902

  1. Native Reserves, 1902

    This plate shows the different reserves that were created across Canada by 1902. It also shows the territory that was lost and gained by various bands during this process. Pages 39-43 of Destinies, Chapter Two, “Three Oceans, One Country: 1867-1880,” contain a discussion of the government’s dealings with Aboriginal peoples around this time, as well as what the various treaties that were signed meant to both parties.

  2. Native Population, 1901

    This graph shows the estimated number of Aboriginal Peoples living in each province in Canada in 1901. The numbers are dramatically lower than they would have been at any point in the past. Pages 39-43 of Destinies, Chapter Two, “Three Oceans, One Country: 1867-1880,” have information relating to the experiences of Aboriginal Peoples around this time in Canada.

  3. Sale of Surrendered Lands in Eastern Canada, 1867-1900

    This graph shows the dramatic increase in lands that were sold to the Canadian government by Aboriginal Peoples from 1870-1900. Almost one million acres of land changed hands in this time period. Pages 39-43 of Destinies, Chapter Two, “Three Oceans, One Country: 1867-1880,” look at many of the treaties that were made on the basis of such land sales.

  4. Native Reserves -British Columbia, 1902

    This table shows some of the immense bureaucratic effort that went into the creation of the reserve system. Band names, linguistic families, total hectare allotment and other information are all organized on this table. Pages 39-45 of Destinies, Chapter Two, “Three Oceans, One Country: 1867-1880,” look at the various treaties that were signed with Aboriginal bands, and the entry of British Columbia into Confederation.

  5. Native Reserves- The Prairies, 1902

    This table contains similar information to the previous chart, except the information listed relates to Aboriginal reserves in the Prairies. Worth noting are the official notes in the far right column. Pages 39-43 of Destinies, Chapter Two, “Three Oceans, One Country: 1867-1880,” detail the treaties that led to the creation of the reserves in the Prairies. Pages 86-87 of Destinies, Chapter Four, “The Fragile Union: The Resurgence of Regionalism,” look at discontent in the Northwest, which was partially caused by the reserve system and its inequities.

  6. Native Reserves- The East, 1902

    This table is another example of the bureaucracy that went into the reserve system in Canada. Page 368 in Chapter Sixteen, “The Maritime Colonies, 1815-1864,” examines Aboriginal treatment in the eastern part of the colonies that led to the signing of the treaties. Pages 383-386 examine the struggles of the Beothuks in Newfoundland in the decades before this table was finished. Pages 39-43 of Destinies, Chapter Two, “Three Oceans, One Country: 1867-1880,” discuss the drafting and signing of the treaties that led to the reserve system coming into place.

Exploration

Exploring the Atlantic Coast, 16th and 17th Centuries

  1. Principal Explorations, 1497-1632

    This plate shows the very limited parts of North America that were mapped and explored by Europeans during these centuries. The paths of explorers from several European countries are visible. Pages 29-39 of Origins, Chapter Two, “The Europeans’ Arrival,” give information on the early voyages to North America that are relevant to this plate.

  2. Cantino Map, 1502; Ribeiro Map, 1529; Desceliers Map, 1550; James Map, 1632

    These four maps all represent early visual recreations of North America by European explorers. They show a steady progression in knowledge of the North American coastline. Maps such as these were often drafted to try and lead future explorers towards a Northwest Passage. Pages 29-33 of Origins, Chapter Two, “The Europeans’ Arrival,” give accounts of many of the journeys made by Europeans to North America around these years.

French Exploration, 17th and 18th Centuries

  1. French Exploration, 1603-1751

    This plate shows the routes that were used by French explorers in North America from 1603-1751. It is also possible to show the forts and trading posts that were set up during these years. Pages 45-51 of Origins, Chapter Three, “The Beginnings of New France,” can be used as points of reference because they look at the early years of New France. Chapter Five, “Province de France, 1663-1760,” covers many of the social and economic realties that people were experiencing while these explorers were moving around the continent.

  2. Champlain Map, 1632; Sanson Map, 1656; Coronelli Map, 1688; Deslile Map, 1752; Bellin Map, 1755

    These five maps are all seventeenth century visual representations of North America by Europeans. Each map discusses the life of the person who created it, as well as the sources they relied upon for their visualizations. Chapter Five of Origins, “Province de France,” provides information on what life was like in the colony while these maps were being drafted.

  3. Explorers and Motivation, 1603-1751

    This table looks at all the different voyages that were undertaken by European explorers during this time period. The various goals of the missions, ranging from expanding fur trade routes to military conquest, are listed as well. Chapter Five of Origins, “Province de France,” provides some background information on why these explorers would have had these motivations for their voyages.

Exploration from Hudson Bay, 17th to 19th Centuries

  1. Exploration from Hudson Bay, 1610-1821

    This plate looks at the routes taken by European explorers around Hudson Bay and its surrounding area from 1610-1821. It is also possible to show the trading posts and routes taken by Montreal traders, which shows the importance of the fur trade to European exploration in this area. Pages 101-102 in Origins, Chapter Five, “Province de Quebec,” are useful because they look at the various occupations of the people of New France during most of the years covered by this plate. Page 132 of Chapter Seven, “The Anglo-French Struggle for a Continent,” looks at French expansion to the north and west, and how this created conflicts with the English.

  2. Thornton Map, 1709; Dobbs Map, 1744; Coats Map, 1749; Norton Map, 1760; Graham Map, 1772-1774; Explorers of the Saskatchewan Country, 1770s

    These six maps are all eighteenth century visual reproductions of North America by Europeans. These maps were all prepared by men who were exploring on behalf of the Hudson’s Bay Company. Pages 398, 400-401 of Origins, Chapter Eighteen, “The Northwest to the 1860s,” can be used in conjunction with these maps because they look at the role that the HBC and the fur trade played in the development of this region.

Exploration in the Far West, 18th and 19th centuries

  1. Exploration of the Far West, 1741-1821

    This plate looks at European exploration of the far western areas of North America. The journeys of explorers from Britain, the United States, Spain and Russia are all shown. Pages 422-426 of Origins, Chapter Nineteen, “The Pacific Coast to the 1860s,” provide information on the growth of the imperial rivalry in this area, as well as the importance of the fur trade.

  2. Pond Map, 1785; Hodgson Map, 1791; Arrowsmith Map, 1795; Thompson Map, 1814; Taylor Map, 1830

    This series of maps show the efforts of Europeans to know the west coast of North America in greater detail. These maps were produced for the Hudson’s Bay Company, which indicates the relationship between the fur trade and the exploration of the West. Pages 398, 400-401 of Origins, Chapter Eighteen, “The Northwest to the 1860s,” discuss the role of the HBC in the movement west.

Exploration to Mid 19th Century

  1. Exploration 1818-1851

    This plate looks at the areas that were explored by Europeans by 1851. It is worth noting that the coastal areas were well-known, but large areas of the interior of the continent remained unmapped by explorers. Pages 413-415 of Origins, Chapter Eighteen, “The Northwest to the 1860s,” discuss this lack of knowledge, as well as what life was like in these areas before large Canadian settlement.

  2. Lapie Map, 1821; Arrowsmith Map, 1832; Back Map 1833-1834; Arrowsmith Map, 1854

    This series of maps looks at the north of the continent, and how European knowledge of the terrain gradually advanced. Pages 413-415 of Origins, Chapter Eighteen, “The Northwest to the 1860s,” are a useful reference for these maps.

Exploration and Assessment to 1944

  1. Arctic Exploration 1851-1944

    This plate charts the explorations of Europeans from several different countries in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It is also possible to see where settlements in this region emerged as a result of these journeys. Pages 413-415 of Origins, Chapter Eighteen, “The Northwest to the 1860s,” can be used in conjunction with this plate because they look at some of the economic and social developments in the North during this time period.

  2. Richardson Map, 1851; Hector Map, 1857; Palliser Map, 1857-1859; Blodget Map, 1875

    This series of maps looks at how the geographic terrain of Canada was charted and understood in the nineteenth century. Many areas were re-visited during this time for scientific purposes. Pages 413-415 of Origins, Chapter Eighteen, “The Northwest to the 1860s,” are relevant to these maps.

  3. Scientific Expeditions and Surveys, 1857-1892

    This plate looks at where the different scientific expeditions in the North travelled in the later decades of the nineteenth century. It is also possible to see which European and North American nations went on these missions. Pages 414-415 of Origins, Chapter Eighteen, “The Northwest to the 1860s,” are relevant because they look at this region during this time period.

Summary of Exploration through Four Centuries

  1. Summary of Exploration, 1497- 1891

    This summary map makes it possible to chart Europeans knowledge of the North American coast and interior from 1497-1891. It is also possible to see which nations invested in the exploration of various parts of North America during these years. Pages 29-39 of Origins, Chapter Two, “The Europeans’ Arrival,” give information on the early voyages to North America that are relevant to this plate. Pages 398, 400-401 of Origins, Chapter Eighteen, “The Northwest to the 1860s,” can also be useful because of their discussion of the role of the HBC in later explorations.

Prehistory

Ecological Regions, Circa 1500CE

  1. Ecological Regions, Circa 1500CE

    This plate looks at the ecological landscape of North America prior to the arrival of European settlers. This map is different from others because it has little to do with human beings and the ways in which they divided up the land. It is an interesting counter-point to maps of Aboriginal settlement. Pages 8-13 of Origins, Chapter One, “The First Peoples,” looks at how some Aboriginal groups were affecting the ecological landscape around this time.

  2. Precipitation Ranges

    This graph looks at the varying types and amounts of precipitation that each Canadian region typically received circa 1500CE. Pages 8-13 of Origins, Chapter One, “The First Peoples,” look at the various ecological climates of North America around this time, all of which would have been affected, and were often dictated, by precipitation ranges.

  3. Radiation and Growing Degree Day Ranges, circa 1500CE

    This graph lists both the amount of radiation that was given off by the various geographic regions of what would become Canada, as well as the average number of days that vegetation could grow in each region. Pages 8-13 of Origins, Chapter One, “The First Peoples,” can be used in conjunction with this graph because they contain discussions of the various regions of North America around this time period.

  4. Seasonal Temperature Ranges, circa 1500CE

    This graph looks at the January and July mean temperatures for the geographic regions of Canada circa 1500CE. This graph can be used as an interesting comparison with where people lived which can be found on pages 8-13 of Origins, Chapter One, “The First Peoples.,”

  5. Ecological Regions: Circumpolar Domain

    This table gives a breakdown of the various types of terrain and vegetation in the North of Canada. It also lists mean numbers for temperature and precipitation throughout the year. It should be used in reference to plate 106, which is a map of the Ecological Regions of North America, circa 1500CE. Pages 12-13 of Origins, Chapter One, “The First Peoples,” can also be used in conjunction with this plate, as they discuss the climate
    and culture of those who lived in the North.

  6. Ecological Regions: Humid Temperate Domain

    This table gives a breakdown of the various types of terrain and vegetation in the more temperate regions of North America, including the Maritimes and the St. Lawrence Valley. It should be used in reference to plate 106, which is a map of the Ecological Regions of North America, circa 1500CE. Pages 11-12 of Origins, Chapter One, “The First Peoples,” are a useful point of reference because they look at the people who lived in these regions of North America around 1500CE.

  7. Ecological Regions: Dry Domain

    This table lists the various types of terrain and vegetation in the drier regions of North America. It should be used in reference to plate 106, which is a map of the Ecological Regions of North America, circa 1500CE. Pages 11-12 of Origins, Chapter One “The First Peoples,” contain relevant information on the people who lived in this region of North America during this time period.

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